Annotated Bibliography

Cindy Biao

Annotated Bibliography

Brody, Jay. How to survive the SAT (and ACT): by hundreds of top-scoring students. Atlanta, 

             GA: Hundreds of Heads Books, 2007.

This article summarizes the experiences from many top scores SAT students. It talks about how they prepare for the SAT and what are the strategies to get top scores. The students talk about the different books they studied and technique when solving the problem. This is an objective source because the author only summarizes the experiences from others without commenting much on the SAT himself. This source contains a lot of tips for the students to follow in order to get high scores on the tests. This source is helpful to my research because it helps me to look at the testing system in an academic way, it helps me to understand more about what kind of effort students need to pay off in this testing system and how the SAT or ACT measure success. I think this source can work for both supporting the current testing system and against it.

Campbell, Craig, and Geoffrey Sherington. The comprehensive public high school:

historical perspectives. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013.

This book talks about the changing of public high schools through many historical reforms and policy changing. The source talks about the difference between the public high schools from before and the contemporary public high schools and how the essential value has changed through the course of the year. The source also criticize how the standard of current public high schools in the United States has declined. This source is helpful to me because it talks a lot about the flaws in the current public high school system. Since I want to find out the disadvantage for some students when taking tests such like SAT or ACT, I can use the flaws to back up my argument. This source is objective because the author utilizes many historical facts and put almost no personal feelings into it.

Couch, Jim F., and William F. Shughart. “Private school enrollment and public school

             performance: Reply.” Public Choice 82, no. 3-4 (1995): 375-79. doi:10.1007/bf01047705.

This source compares the quality of education between public and private high schools. It talks about the relationship between schools and tests like the SAT. The author describes the argument that the rise of private schools, which provide a more solid base for the test can decrease the value of public high schools. The source also talks about the performance on the tests base on races, and economic background. This source can help me understand better the differences between public and private high schools: how is one kind more privileged than the other. It also helps my research because it talks about the disadvantage and advantage for people with different background and different races.

Coleman, James S., and Thomas Hoffer. Public and private high schools: the impact of

             communities. New York, 1987.

This source is in some way similar to my previous source. It talks about the differences between private and public high schools, and how the composition of the two kinds of schools form the society. This source helps me for my research because it can let me look at relationship between public and private high schools on a greater scale: the community. This source not only talks about the difference between the two kinds but also talks about how they affect the community and how the community affects the schools.

High School Achievement: Public, Catholic and Private Schools Compared. James S. Coleman,

           Thomas Hoffer, Sally Kilgorepublic and Private High Schools: The Impact Of 

           Communities. James S. Coleman, Thomas Hoffer.

This source talks about not only private and public schools but also included Catholic schools. It talks about the advantage of each type of school and disadvantage of each type of school. This source talks about what are the values these schools care more about and what are the different strategy for students to achieve academic success. This source helps me for my research because it gives me an even broader view on the different types of schools: how they differ and how the types of school can result in different performance on the tests. It helps me with my argument that the current testing system puts some students at disadvantage.

Kelleher , Maureen. “New York City’s Children First.” Center For American Progress, January

           2014, 11-21. Accessed March 01, 2018. doi:10.3403/30339967u.

This source talks about the strategy the government did and is planning to do in order to increase the quality for New York City’s education. It talks about the progress the education system want to make and how it will benefit the students. It also explains the current situation of high school students in the New York City. This source mainly focuses on comparing the performance of students from before and now. This article helps me with my resesrch because it let me narrow down my region to only New York City and helps me figure out the difference performance for students from different district and different schools in the New York City. This is an overall object source because it contains mainly fact and data.

Kim, Dae Yeop. Evaluating effects of school reform: evidence from New York City public 

            schools. 2006.

This source talks about the reforms that different schools have made and made evaluation on those reforms. The source talks about the strategy that the schools applied and the effect afterwards. This source can help me with my research because it helps me to know what kind of effort the education system made to help the students achieve success and what are the flaws in the success. It uses many factual evidence from previous reform to analyze the advantage and disadvantage of public high schools. It helps me to give an insight on how those reforms can possibly influence the students during the test.

Koos, Leonard V. Private and public secondary education: a comparative study. Chicago, IL: The

             University of Chicago Press, 1931.

This source talks about directly about how the private school education is different from public high school education. It compares the two kinds of education and talks about the pros and cons for those two types of education. It uses examples from both current public and private schools in order to give the audience a better idea how these two types of schools differ. This source would be helpful for my research because it talks very directly about the differences between private and public high school education, which helps me to explain better how students from public high schools tend to be at a disadvantage place that those who attend private high schools.

Whelan, Corey. “Why Choose Public School If You Can Afford Private School?” CBS New

              York. February 07, 2014. Accessed March 01, 2018.


This source talks about the difference between public and private high school from a very unique way. It first ask a question to raise the curiosity of audience then answer and analyze the question. It talks about the attention on the Ivy League and the desire for some students to get high test scores. It talks about how the private schools can have a wider variety of programs and on the contrary, public schools tend to have a smaller range of choices. This helps me with my research because it helps me to understand the motivation for students to go to private school and the disadvantage that the students from public schools can have. This is an objective source because it uses lots of data and real life examples to justify the article.

Zwick, Rebecca. Rethinking the SAT The Future of Standardized Testing in University

            Admissions. London: Taylor and Francis, 2013.

This source talks about the SAT: how the SAT is benefitting the students and how it is failing the students. This source makes the audience to rethink about the test that they all either have been through or are going to experience. It gives audience the chance to find out about the flaw in the current testing system. The source talks about how the SAT might be suitable for one type of students but not for some others. It also talks about how the SAT can be improved. This source helps me with my research because different from my other sources, it focuses mainly on the SAT itself. It helps me to maintain detail information about SAT and the testing system and let me learn about the merit and weakness that SAT has.

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