Agarwal, Kritika. “DOING RIGHT ONLINE: ARCHIVISTS SHAPE AN ETHICS FOR THE DIGITAL AGE.” American Historical Association. Accessed January 27, 2019. https://www.historians.org/publications-and-directories/perspectives-on- history/november-2016/doing-right-online-archivists-shape-an-ethics-for-the-digital-age.
Agarwal makes the claim that due to online archives and databases, law enforcement could monitor and use evidence of online presence against parties demonstrating their free speech, such as Black Lives Matter. Agarwal also discusses the use of ethics in online archives and states how some groups are working to ethically create archives by contacting groups or individuals who would be included in them for their consent.
Online archives are easily accessible to the public and therefore, may have unintended consequences if materials can be seen by anyone seeking to exploit people or groups within those archives. Digital databases store information that can include personal information individuals may not want to share with the public, therefore asking for consent is essential to monitoring an ethical database.
Though free speech is a right in America, it is not free of consequence. However, ethics must be taken into account when collecting data and information, regardless of what media or format, when creating an archive. Privacy and consent must be protected for all individuals going onward to ensure people are represented correctly online and in real life.
Bourdieu, Pierre. “Public Opinion Does Not Exist.” Sociology in Question, 149-57. EBSCO Publishing.
Bourdieu argues that public opinion does not exist due to the varying perspectives and personal interpretations of those surveyed when asked vague questions. As a whole, the “public” is diverse, consisting of people from different cultural backgrounds, financial statuses, religions, and morals, making it ineffective to conclude an answer to a question by generalizing the public.
The ineffectiveness of public opinion polls may be the reason why people may want to create them; by muddying the waters of the question, the person who asks the question can manipulate the participants to give the desired answer. It is impossible for public opinion to exist therefore, public opinion polls should be viewed skeptically to avoid misleading information.
Public opinion research is not an effective way to gauge the beliefs of people regarding political or social issues because varying perspectives and interpretations change the way people answer vague questions. Public opinion polls are biased in the context of questioning groups of certain privilege, to produce an assumed or expected answer, making authentic public opinion an unattainable concept.
Hall, Peter. “Bubbles, Lines, and String: How Information Visualization Shapes Society.” In Graphic Design: Now in Production, 170-87. Walker Art Center, 2011.
Hall stresses the importance of data visualization to help readers better understand what information is given to them. The use of graphics helps readers see and understand numerical and textual information when presented in an aesthetically appealing and cohesive way. Color, shape, and typography are all factors that affect how an audience will view data given to them to interpret, given the clarity of the composition.
Data visualization expresses data in a clear and objective way. The use of art, journalism, and science can help viewers think more deeply about the information presented to them. Data should be accessible and easily viewable for readers to understand, but it should also encourage readers to think critically.
Data visualization is an important factor to consider in publishing information of any kind because it takes into consideration the viewers’ ability to retain and process the information. It is an interdisciplinary practice that combines art, statistics, and science and should be accounted for in the representation of all fields of information.
Owens, Trevor. “What Do You Mean by Archive? Genres of Usage for Digital Preservers.” Library of Congress. Accessed January 27, 2019. https://blogs.loc.gov/thesignal/2014/02/what-do-you-mean-by-archive-genres-of-usage-for-digital-preservers/.
Owens lists and discusses the different genres or contexts the word “archive” is referred to in his article but stresses it is not his sole intention to define the different variations of archives. He states the misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the types of archives available makes it difficult for researchers and those involved in digital preservation to communicate clearly.
The understanding of archive is different for most people depending on their background and experience with research as well as information storage. The understanding of archive referred to its type can only be beneficial in institutions and academia to focus on various aspects of culture and data.
Understanding the different genres of archives is a useful tool to effectively label and organize information according to its topic and media. The generalization of archive as a collection of mixed information with no sense of clarity or organization defeats the purpose of using archive genres as a tool for research.
Irigaray, Luce, and Luce Irigaray. “Approaching the Other as Other.” In Between East and West: From Singularity to Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 2002.
Irigaray argues that in order for people to truly understand what and who they do not, people must approach learning without any preconceived notions or biases. Approaching the “other” as its own entity or form and without one viewing the “other” in relation to oneself allows for an open-minded appreciation and acceptance of the unknown, rather than fear and hostility.
Assumptions and stereotypes prevent people from making attempts to understand what they do not, therefore demotivating people from taking chances to learn what they do not know for certain. Curiosity sparks human intellect and imagination; without curiosity and with only false knowledge, humans would not make efforts to step out of their assumed comfort zones.
In order to cope with the unknown, some people create assumptions but with the absence of wonder comes the absence of freedom for exploration. Human life without curiosity would lack joy. People must learn to coexist with who and what they do not understand, given there is respect for the understanding that individuals are just part of the whole of any type of system they may be a part of.
Bagli, Charles V. “Subway Stop and Housing for Red Hook Are Among Cuomo Proposals.” New York Times, January 3, 2018. Accessed April 26, 2019. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/03/nyregion/red-hook-subway-housing.html.
Bagli highlights the problem of Red Hook’s lack of public transportation and Governor Cuomo’s proposal to extend an MTA track to connect Red Hook with Manhattan as well as the rest of Brooklyn. Red Hook’s geographic location is a disadvantage to those wanting to visit the area. An extension of the subway line to Red Hook would allow more people to live in affordable housing, which would be created as part of Cuomo’s proposal. The $3 billion proposal includes the subway extension as well as the development of 45,000 new apartments. However, Red Hook’s sea-level location poses environmental problems because it is prone to rising tides and flooding. 60 percent of the Red Hook population live in Red Hook Houses and must have a say in the development of the land.
Collins, Lisa M. “Anniversary of Sandy Devastation Recalls Red Hook Rebound.” Brooklyn Eagle, October 21, 2017. Accessed April 26, 2019. https://brooklyneagle.com/articles/2017/10/27/anniversary-of-sandy-devastation-recalls-red-hook-rebound/.
In this article, Collins interviews several local business owners from Red Hook as they reflect on their experience recovering from the storm. This article was written in 2017, five years after Superstorm Sandy hit Red Hook. Collins interviews businesses from Red Hook’s main street, Van Brunt Street, which include Red Hook Lobster Pound and The Good Fork. These interviews give insight into how damaging the flooding was to these businesses, but also highlight the importance of community resiliency and how the community of Red Hook bonded together because of the storm. Business owners look back in retrospect and express lessons they have learned as a result of the storm, and how Red Hook can improve to better fend off future storms.
Klinenberg, Eric. Palaces for the People: How Social Infrastructure Can Help Fight Inequality, Polarization, and the Decline of Civic Life. New York, NY: BROADWAY BOOKS, 2018.
Klinenberg offers an in-depth explanation of the difference between social infrastructure and social capital, as well as their importance to a neighborhood. He introduces his topic by describing the effects of the 1995 Chicago Heat Wave, and how different ethnic and socio-economic communities fared. Third Places are public places were people can coalesce and feel like they are at home. Public spaces and institutions encourage people to participate instead of only observing. He argues that social infrastructure matters more than conventional hard infrastructure and investing in social infrastructure is not the only solution for fixing economic inequality. Social infrastructure provides the basis for social capital to improve.
Spivack, Caroline. “Nearly 5 Years After Sandy, Red Hook Houses To Get New Roofs.” DNAinfo New York. September 05, 2017. Accessed April 27, 2019. https://www.dnainfo.com/new-york/20170905/red-hook/red-hook-houses-roof-repairs-nycha-sandy/.
Spivack shines a light on how residents of Red Hook Houses were heavily affected by the storm, however, they have not received adequate and responsive aid. Five years after the storm, FEMA announced a $63 million project to replace all 28 roofs of the Red Hook Houses as well as updating the heating and boiling systems. Residents have lived with mold and other interior destruction because of the flooding and lack of power the weeks after the storm. The project will take five years to complete and is a step forward to bettering the lives of Red Hook House residents. Red Hook is the site of New York City’s largest public housing development, with 60 percent of the Red Hook population living in the Red Hook Houses. The reconstruction will make the NYCHA residents safer from future storms and more resilient.
Washburn, Alexander. “The Nature of Urban Design: A New York Perspective on Resilience.” Island Press. Accessed April 26, 2019. https://www.amazon.com/Nature-Urban-Design-Perspective-Resilience/dp/1610916999.
Urban designer, Alexander Washburn, reflects on the effects of Superstorm Sandy on New York City’s resiliency. Washburn is a resident of Red Hook and when Superstorm Sandy was coming towards Red Hook, Washburn refused to relocate. This personal description of Superstorm Sandy’s damage to Red Hook helps the reader understand how residents of Red Hook felt while the storm was ravaging through their neighborhood. Since Red Hook is sea-level, many experienced flood damages. Washburn seeks to design with keeping in mind the power of resiliency, especially through storms like Sandy. He wants to design buildings and infrastructures that will withstand storm damages, which will be more frequent in the future. Washburn also explains how resilient design must include the input of and think about the community that will exist.
Wong, Pamela. “5 Years Since Sandy: Red Hook’s Barnacle Parade [Photos/Video].” BKLYNER. October 30, 2017. Accessed April 27, 2019. https://bklyner.com/5-years-since-sandy-red-hooks-barnacle-parade-photosvideo/.
Wong reports on the Red Hook Barnacle Parade, a parade held annually to celebrate the community’s resilience through the superstorm. The parade path visits local businesses and famed points of attraction. Each year, the parade features a theme relating to strength and bravery. The community of Red Hook refuses to mourn and dwell on the destruction Superstorm Sandy has caused, rather, celebrate the spirit of the community that helped them rebuild.