Émile Cohl’s Fantasmagorie is the first animated cartoon. The animation was created by shooting 700 drawings onto negative film to give the effect of white on black. The photos were also double exposed in order to make the running time longer, almost a full two minutes. This film is considered to be a stream of consciousness style, which gives the cartoon its random subject matter and easy and fluid transitions. The character in Fantasmagorie, Fantoche, reappears in some of his over 250 films created between 1908 and 1923. When Fantasmagorie was released, Cohl also released two films called “The Puppet’s Nightmare” and “A Puppet Drama” which both have the same style and random plot lines as Fantasmagorie. He inspired other animators such as Winsor McCay, Raoul Barré, John Randolph Bray, and Paul Grimault, who all drew hand drawn animations. Cohl was attributed with further development to the artistic style of animation along with short narrative storytelling.

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