Bridge 3 Outline

Some key information I’ve gathered on the history of Harlem:

Harlem is a key location when speaking about American History, a place which has opened many

minds to the idea of African American entertainers, making a huge step away from  segregation,

and rather celebrating their culture.

  • Spanned from the 1920s to the mid- 1930s
  • WW1 was at its end during the Harlem Renaissance
  • African Americans migrated to the north ended up in Harlem
  • Harlem was the world’s largest black community
  • The Harlem Renaissance celebrated African-American culture.
  • It was a struggle between and traditionalism and modernity in america during the 1920s
  • “One factor in the occurrence of the Harlem Renaissance that is sometimes minimized but deserves special mention is the increase in the number of educated Blacks” (Kura Hulanda).
  • Upper West side of Manhattan island
  • the South, the West Indies, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Haiti.
  • Harlem overcame overcrowding, unemployment, and poverty and flowered with literary and artistic movement celebrating African-American culture
  • The Great Migration
    • 40% of African American population inhabited the North’s cities
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
  • Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
  • Post-war change
  • Lack of white acknowledgement and support
  • “Before and during the Harlem Renaissance period, racism and oppression was common and virulent all across America” – Kura Hulanda


The Great Migration

  • 40% of African Americans or 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North
  • Search for opportunities like jobs and education


  • Founded in 1909
  • Encouraged African Americans to protest violence regarding race
  • Resulted in the inspiration to lead protests and stand up for rights
    • WEB Du Bois led a parade of 10000 African Americans in New York


  • Founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914
  • An encouragement of taking pride in their race inspired many African Americans to change the image they had of their race as a whole
  • Promoted businesses
  • Goal was to terminate white supremacy

Post-war change

  • Women obtained jobs
    • As an inferior race, this inspired African Americans to believe they could do, the same and ignite change
  • Lack of white acknowledgement and support
  • “Before and during the Harlem Renaissance period, racism and oppression was common and virulent all across America” – Kura Hulanda
  • Despite the effort to transform the image of African Americans during this time, many still opposed and ignored their progress.
  • Racism was still very present and strong, and limited African Americans.
  • Lynchings still occurred and African Americans were still far from equal.
  • Even though the Harlem Renaissance was a time of personal growth, there was still much more progress that needed to be made.
  • not everyone in the Harlem Renaissance agreed with each other’s approaches towards progress, for example some fought for more goals of equality while others wanted to highlight the positive differences and unique cultures of American Americans.
  • Langston Hughes
    • Wrote poetry, prose, and plays
    • Letters from Langston, Remember Me to Harlem, Scottsboro Limited, I Wonder as I Wander, Shakespeare in Harlem
    • Had a wide impact outside of Harlem
    • Included other artists such as
      • Countee Cullen
      • James Weldon Johnson
      • Claude McKay
      • W.E.B. DuBois
      • Alain Locke
  • Louis Armstrong
    • Came from poor family in Louisiana
    • Performed around new orleans with bands and in parades
    • “performed in NYC with Fletcher Henderson Orchestra at the Roseland Ballroom”- History of the Harlem Renaissance
    • 1929 made first appearance on broadway
    • Jazz recording of Ain’t Misbehavin opened minds to jazz through familiarity
    • Billie Holiday, Chick Webb
    • he performed at NYC it was a huge step for black americans in the music finally playing on broadway and it opened people minds to jazz because he would do covers of pop songs but turn them into jazz to keep the familiarity of them which people at the time liked
  • Aaron Douglas
    • “created powerful images of African-American life and struggles”
    • won awards for work in publications: Opportunity, National Urban League magazine, The Crisis
    • Modernism and African art
    • In high demand to illustrate works of many writers.
    • douglass art was very popular do to his style and he would crest the message of african american struggled in life through his art which showed people the stuff they’d gone through and as his work became more popular her was asked to illustrate for many books
    • Not everyone accepted or acknowledged the efforts of African Americans
    • Self-acceptance and black pride among African Americans
    • New works of art, literature, music, and growth of business in Harlem
    • -caused some disunity across america, although great strides to racial equality were made
    • -gave african americans concrete reasons to have pride in themselves, different than in the past
    • -new works of art, literature, music (jazz especially), and there was a growth of business in harlem

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