Bridge 1: Bridge Impressionism

Shoes were created from a long time ago to protect people’s feet from ground. However, as time goes on, a variety of different shoes with additional functions and designs came out to fulfill the specific purpose. One example of such example is the waterproof shoes. The oldest designs of waterproof shoes from the 19th century applied the mixture of wax and oil at the surface of the shoes. However, the development of technology enabled the use of new materials; in 1980, the first GORE-TEX footwear made out of special polymer was created. The waterproof shoes are part of the accessories system that protects the feet from getting wet. While some shoes seek for fashion and artistic values, the waterproof shoes focus on the function that provides a more pleasant experience in wearing shoes. By effectively preventing water from getting into the shoes, people can travel and go to work more safely. Also, since the waterproof shoes tend to be durable, they can also be worn in other places with some water, such as mountains and beaches, which could lead to greater convenience in outdoor activities of people.

The modern form of toilet paper and its holder was first invented by Seth Wheeler from Albany, New York in 1891. While the idea of using the toilet paper was originated in China from much earlier times, Wheeler was the first person who came up with the roll design. Instead of packaged flat sheets, which was the most common way to store the toilet papers, the roll design provided a more efficient way to stably put larger number of sheets in a small space. Also, the cardboard tube at the center allowed people to attach it anywhere on the wall through the horizontal bar of the holder, made by the same designer. Wheeler’s inventions have been extremely effective so that they are still used almost unchanged nowadays. In terms of system, toilet paper and holder are part of the restroom and the personal hygiene systems. With the more efficient way to store the toilet papers, the process of removing the excrement has become faster and more convenient.

The first electric toothbrush was known to be invented by Dr. Philippe Guy Woog back in 1954, and the modern model that is widely spread was designed by David Giuliani in 1992. Compared to the traditional toothbrushes, the electric toothbrush has an electric circuit that allows rapid vibration of the brush. As a result, it can effectively clean the teeth all the way to the back of the molars, which is a difficult area to brush properly by hands. The part between the crown and the gum is where the food particles get stuck most often, and for children who do not know the proper brushing technique, the remaining particles can cause cavities and develop into gum disease. However, with the electric toothbrush, one simply needs to hold the brush to easily clean the area. While the concept of putting electricity and water together may sound dangerous, recent products are considered safe to use. The electric toothbrush belongs to the personal care system that helps maintaining the health. As people live longer in these days, healthy teeth are crucial to keep eating a variety of different food in old age. Although recent technology allows more effective artificial teeth, brushing well from earlier on could save a lot of money and resources.

The microwave oven was invented by Percy Spencer in 1947. He accidentally discovered that an electronic device called cavity magnetron melted his chocolate bar in the pocket, and he used that to make the first microwave oven. Even though it could have been just considered as a weird experience, he implemented it into a new design that allows food to be heated without fire. The microwave is easy to handle, and it does not require any cooking skills and tools. Even those who are too young or inexperienced can still heat up food for their meals, and the possible injuries from fire and knife can be avoided as well. The systems that the microwave belongs to include the kitchen and cooking. It has simplified the process of making a meal by greatly reducing the time and energy required in the procedure. Furthermore, the invention of the microwave has prospered the frozen food and other kinds that can be consumed right away after heating.

The electronic dictionary was designed by Tadashi Sasaki from Sharp, a Japanese electronics company, in 1979. Instead of having to find words through heavy dictionaries, the electronic dictionary allowed rapid and accurate search. Before then, in order to look up a new word, one had to open up the specific dictionary that had the right kind of information. Depends on the types or purpose, people had to own multiple different dictionaries that require some time even for the experienced users. However, the invention of electronic dictionaries enabled one to just type in the word in question. Furthermore, one small portable device could contain many different types of dictionaries to support one to study more efficiently. Independence from the libraries was the major achievement of this invention. The electronic dictionary is part of the electronics and education systems. In long term, it could be considered as an earlier stage of the ebooks, which is replacing the paper books in many areas in these days. Furthermore, with faster access to words that one does not know, the electronic dictionary helps one to learn languages more easily.



Carter, Clint. “Step Into the History of the Hiking Shoe.” GORE-TEX. March 1, 2016. Accessed February 03, 2019.

Crisostomo, Christian. “Japan’s Magnificent Electronic Dictionary.” VR World. January 20, 2015. Accessed February 03, 2019.

“Who Invented Toilet Paper?” Toilet Paper History. Accessed February 03, 2019.

“Who Invented the Toothbrush and When Was It Invented?” Library of Congress Information Bulletin. September 18, 2018. Accessed February 03, 2019. mysteries/tooth.html.

“Who Invented the Microwave Oven?” Wonderopolis. Accessed February 03, 2019.

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