Finding Your Style



Art is everywhere, and pieces are being created everyday. Every art piece represents its creator’s uniqueness, either it is the artist’s strokes or the emotion embeds inside the art piece, showing a strong uniqueness can instantly catch audiences eyes.  For this studio project I am going to create a system that will analyze one’s drawings and finding the correlation between the common pattern within the art pieces and finally output a piece that emphasize one’s artistic uniqueness.

I will construct the system with python, using the Kersa library, scikit-learn and Google’s Tensorflow, to create a mini AI that will analyze an user’s art inputs and taking the inputs into a machine learning process, training the AI as it is the user him or herself, and output an art piece that best represent the user’s uniqueness.


Examples of strong uniqueness, that’s also what makes an artwork famous.




Predictiveworld is a advertising webpage made by Ubisoft, a video game company, to advertise its new game, Watch Dog 2. The game is about a hacker who can hack to control the entire San Francisco city. The webpage showcase the idea of internet privacy in the video game by analyzing an user’s facebook information and generate a list of predictions, such as possible career, chance of dying in a traffic accident, chance of getting marry, etc as the outcome. Most of the outcomes are not accurate, but I am inspired by the visual representation style.,37e3b66f-7b75-4e46-9050-ddd119b39aba

I am inspired by the user interface in these two references, they both create a photo zooming effect using Three.js, which is the client library that I will be using the create by project.


Python code for analyzing paintings

from scipy.misc import imread, imresize, imsave
from scipy.optimize import fmin_l_bfgs_b
from sklearn.preprocessing import normalize
import numpy as np
import time
import os
import argparse
import h5py
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers.convolutional import Convolution2D, ZeroPadding2D, AveragePooling2D
from keras import backend as K
####cl argumentst#####
parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(description='Neural style transfer with Keras.')
parser.add_argument('–b', metavar='base', type=str, help='Path to the image to transform.')
parser.add_argument('–s', metavar='ref', type=str, help='Path to the style reference image.')
parser.add_argument('–r', metavar='res_prefix', type=str, help='Prefix for the saved results.')
parser.add_argument("–image_size", dest="img_size", default=512, type=int, help='Output Image size')
parser.add_argument("–content_weight", dest="content_weight", default=0.025, type=float, help="Weight of content") # 0.025
parser.add_argument("–style_weight", dest="style_weight", default=1, type=float, help="Weight of content") # 1.0
parser.add_argument("–style_scale", dest="style_scale", default=1.0, type=float, help="Scale the weightage of the style") # 1, 0.5, 2
parser.add_argument("–total_variation_weight", dest="tv_weight", default=1e-3, type=float, help="Total Variation in the Weights") # 1.0
parser.add_argument("–num_iter", dest="num_iter", default=10, type=int, help="Number of iterations")
parser.add_argument("–rescale_image", dest="rescale_image", default="True", type=str, help="Rescale image after execution to original dimentions")
parser.add_argument("–rescale_method", dest="rescale_method", default="bilinear", type=str, help="Rescale image algorithm")
parser.add_argument("–maintain_aspect_ratio", dest="maintain_aspect_ratio", default="True", type=str, help="Maintain aspect ratio of image")
parser.add_argument("–content_layer", dest="content_layer", default="conv5_2", type=str, help="Optional 'conv4_2'")
parser.add_argument("–init_image", dest="init_image", default="content", type=str, help="Initial image used to generate the final image. Options are 'content' or 'noise")
####function wrapper by llSourcell####
def strToBool(v):
return v.lower() in ("true", "yes", "t", "1")
# adjusting piture to fit tensor
def preprocess_image(image_path, load_dims=False):
global img_WIDTH, img_HEIGHT, aspect_ratio
img = imread(image_path) # Prevents crashes due to PNG images (ARGB)
if load_dims:
img_WIDTH = img.shape[0]
img_HEIGHT = img.shape[1]
aspect_ratio = img_HEIGHT / img_WIDTH
img = imresize(img, (img_width, img_height))
img = img.transpose((2, 0, 1)).astype('float64')
img = np.expand_dims(img, axis=0)
return img
#converting tensor into a valid image
def deprocess_image(x):
x = x.transpose((1, 2, 0))
x = np.clip(x, 0, 255).astype('uint8')
return x
def load_weights(weight_path, model):
assert os.path.exists(weights_path), 'Model weights not found (see "weights_path" variable in script).'
f = h5py.File(weights_path)
for k in range(f.attrs['nb_layers']):
if k >= len(model.layers):
# we don't look at the last (fully-connected) layers in the savefile
g = f['layer_{}'.format(k)]
weights = [g['param_{}'.format(p)] for p in range(g.attrs['nb_params'])]
print('Model loaded.')
#image tensor gram matrix
def gram_matrix(x):
assert K.ndim(x) == 3
features = K.batch_flatten(x)
gram =, K.transpose(features))
return gram
def eval_loss_and_grads(x):
x = x.reshape((1, 3, img_width, img_height))
outs = f_outputs([x])
loss_value = outs[0]
if len(outs[1:]) == 1:
grad_values = outs[1].flatten().astype('float64')
grad_values = np.array(outs[1:]).flatten().astype('float64')
return loss_value, grad_values
#feature mapping of the reference picture
def style_loss(style, combination):
assert K.ndim(style) == 3
assert K.ndim(combination) == 3
S = gram_matrix(style)
C = gram_matrix(combination)
channels = 3
size = img_width * img_height
return K.sum(K.square(S C)) / (4. * (channels ** 2) * (size ** 2))
# an auxiliary loss function
# designed to maintain the "content" of the
# base image in the generated image
def content_loss(base, combination):
return K.sum(K.square(combination base))
# the 3rd loss function, total variation loss,
# designed to keep the generated image locally coherent
def total_variation_loss(x):
assert K.ndim(x) == 4
a = K.square(x[:, :, :img_width1, :img_height1] x[:, :, 1:, :img_height1])
b = K.square(x[:, :, :img_width1, :img_height1] x[:, :, :img_width1, 1:])
return K.sum(K.pow(a + b, 1.25))
def get_total_loss(outputs_dict):
# combine loss funcs
loss = K.variable(0.)
layer_features = outputs_dict[args.content_layer] # 'conv5_2' or 'conv4_2'
base_image_features = layer_features[0, :, :, :]
combination_features = layer_features[2, :, :, :]
loss += content_weight * content_loss(base_image_features,
feature_layers = ['conv1_1', 'conv2_1', 'conv3_1', 'conv4_1', 'conv5_1']
for layer_name in feature_layers:
layer_features = outputs_dict[layer_name]
style_reference_features = layer_features[1, :, :, :]
combination_features = layer_features[2, :, :, :]
sl = style_loss(style_reference_features, combination_features)
loss += (style_weight / len(feature_layers)) * sl
loss += total_variation_weight * total_variation_loss(combination_image)
return loss
def combine_loss_and_gradient(loss, gradient):
outputs = [loss]
if type(grads) in {list, tuple}:
outputs += grads
f_outputs = K.function([combination_image], outputs)
return f_outputs
def prepare_image():
assert args.init_image in ["content", "noise"] , "init_image must be one of ['original', 'noise']"
if "content" in args.init_image:
x = preprocess_image(b, True)
x = np.random.uniform(0, 255, (1, 3, img_width, img_height))
num_iter = args.num_iter
return x, num_iter
# scipy.optimize loss and grads
class Evaluator(object):
def __init__(self):
self.loss_value = None
self.grads_values = None
def loss(self, x):
assert self.loss_value is None
loss_value, grad_values = eval_loss_and_grads(x)
self.loss_value = loss_value
self.grad_values = grad_values
return self.loss_value
def grads(self, x):
assert self.loss_value is not None
grad_values = np.copy(self.grad_values)
self.loss_value = None
self.grad_values = None
return grad_values
evaluator = Evaluator()
args = parser.parse_args()
b = args.b
s = args.s
r = args.r
weights_path = r"vgg16_weights.h5" #weight file
#resizing determining boolean
rescale_image = strToBool(args.rescale_image)
maintain_aspect_ratio = strToBool(args.maintain_aspect_ratio)
# style and content weight
total_variation_weight = args.tv_weight
style_weight = args.style_weight * args.style_scale
content_weight = args.content_weight
# demension of the generate image
img_width = img_height = args.img_size
assert img_height == img_width, 'Due to the use of the Gram matrix, width and height must match.'
img_WIDTH = img_HEIGHT = 0
aspect_ratio = 0
base_image = K.variable(preprocess_image(b, True))
style_reference_image = K.variable(preprocess_image(s))
combination_image = K.placeholder((1, 3, img_width, img_height))
# combine the 3 images into a single Keras tensor
input_tensor = K.concatenate([base_image,
combination_image], axis=0)
# using the three inputs to build a VGG network
first_layer = ZeroPadding2D((1, 1))
first_layer.set_input(input_tensor, shape=(3, 3, img_width, img_height))
model = Sequential()
model.add(Convolution2D(64, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv1_1'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(64, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(AveragePooling2D((2, 2), strides=(2, 2)))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(128, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv2_1'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(128, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(AveragePooling2D((2, 2), strides=(2, 2)))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(256, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv3_1'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(256, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(256, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(AveragePooling2D((2, 2), strides=(2, 2)))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv4_1'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv4_2'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(AveragePooling2D((2, 2), strides=(2, 2)))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv5_1'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu', name='conv5_2'))
model.add(ZeroPadding2D((1, 1)))
model.add(Convolution2D(512, 3, 3, activation='relu'))
model.add(AveragePooling2D((2, 2), strides=(2, 2)))
#####Code by Somshubra Majumdar#####
# load the weights of the VGG16 networks
load_weights(weights_path, model)
# get the symbolic outputs of each "key" layer (we gave them unique names).
outputs_dict = dict([(, layer.output) for layer in model.layers])
# get the loss (we combine style, content, and total variation loss into a single scalar)
loss = get_total_loss(outputs_dict)
# get the gradients of the generated image wrt the loss
grads = K.gradients(loss, combination_image)
#combine loss and gradient
f_outputs = combine_loss_and_gradient(loss, grads)
# Run scipy-based optimization (L-BFGS) over the pixels of the generated image to minimize the neural style loss
# 5 Step process
x, num_iter = prepare_image()
for i in range(num_iter):
#Step 1 – Record iterations
print('Start of iteration', (i+1))
start_time = time.time()
#Step 2 – Perform l_bfgs optimization function using loss and gradient
x, min_val, info = fmin_l_bfgs_b(evaluator.loss, x.flatten(),
fprime=evaluator.grads, maxfun=20)
print('Current loss value:', min_val)
#Step 3 – Get the generated image
img = deprocess_image(x.reshape((3, img_width, img_height)))
#Step 4 – Maintain aspect ratio
if (maintain_aspect_ratio) & (not rescale_image):
img_ht = int(img_width * aspect_ratio)
print("Rescaling Image to (%d, %d)" % (img_width, img_ht))
img = imresize(img, (img_width, img_ht), interp=args.rescale_method)
if rescale_image:
print("Rescaling Image to (%d, %d)" % (img_WIDTH, img_HEIGHT))
img = imresize(img, (img_WIDTH, img_HEIGHT), interp=args.rescale_method)
#Step 5 – Save the generated image
fname = 'iteration_%d.png' % (i+1)
imsave(fname, img)
end_time = time.time()
print('Image saved as', fname)
print('Iteration %d completed in %ds' % (i+1, end_time start_time))

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The process of wrapping the python scripts into a web application is taking longer then I thought, so I have created a basic demo site that showcase the user experience of the webpage

Client Visualization Link –


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