PHOTOGRAPHIC TERMS + GEAR LIST
FIELD GEAR / ACCESSORIES / EQUIPMENT (Possibilities) –»
- Camera bag / backpacks / waist belt / holster
- Batteries / Battery Charger
- Media Cards (+ Media Card Carriers)
- External Flash / Diffusors / Soft Box (+ AA Batteries)
- Cleaning kit
- Filters / Gels (+ Filter cases)
- Step-Up/Step-Down Rings
- Wired or Wireless Remote Shutter Release
- Camera Strap
- Rain Bag (Or garbage bags)
- Lens Hood
- Gaffer Tape
- Light Reflectors
- Cap Keepers
- Extra Rear Lens Cap/s
- Gray Cards
- Lens Cases
- Camera Strap (that you love—I have a favorite)
- Bag Pad Lock (I don’t use one but some do)
- External HD
- Cables (/Cable organizer)
EXPOSURE CONTROL –»
Exposure in photography generally refers to how much light is admitted through the lens, reaches the film, and for how long. This process is controlled by the APERTURE and the SHUTTER SPEED. The various combinations of lens aperture and shutter speed might add up to the same total exposure.
- Contrast: High / Low / Average (fun w/ light + shadow + contrast)
- “Middle Grey”
- Lighting: Artificial vs. Natural
- Histograms (vs. LCD screen)
Aperture / “f stop” (“Iris”): –»
The lens diaphragms are calibrated in terms of different opening ratios which are calibrated so that each successive step (starting from the widest aperture) allows half the amount of light to the film. “2” is a HUGE aperture, for example, which lets in a lot of light, whereas 32 is a tiny aperture (letting in less light).
DEPTH OF FIELD: –»
- Depth of Field / DOF Control
- Deep vs. Shallow (Aperture / distance / lens)
Shutter Speed –»
The shutter is mainly a metallic curtain that covers the film from light. At the moment of exposure it opens at a chosen speed to let light through. The darker the scene, the longer the film needs to be exposed to light. The shutter speeds are calibrated in fractions of a second, and the numbers run from slow to fast (ie: 1″ to 2000 — super slow—1 second, to be exact—to super fast).
Starting at the fast end (2000), each successive step permits double the amount of light. Note: 60 (1/60) is faster than 4 (1/4).
When shutter speeds below 60 are used, the hand movement will be captured on film, and the image will be blurry. In such a situation, the camera must be attached to a tripod.
- Long exposures
- Photographic light paintings (fun w/ light + speed)
- Zoom Effects
- Short Exposures / Capturing movement (“decisive moment”…)
Film Speed / ISO: –»
(International Standard Organization): The film speed means sensitivity or the quickness of its response to light. Greater speed (“fast film”) permits good pictures to be made with little light; with less speed, more light is necessary. A “fast” film is made of larger grains of silver bromide, which result in high graininess. (Slow: 100 / Fast: 3200). We will discuss how digital ISO works.
- Shooting Raw vs. Jpeg
Light Meter –»
Based on the film speed used, the light meter indicates which aperture to use with the chosen shutter speed, or vice versa.
Meter at work:
- Set the camera to Manual mode (M)
- First set the camera to match the film speed/ISO chosen
- Then set the shutter speed desired.
- From your selected camera viewpoint, press the shutter button half way to activate the meter readings.
- Match the aperture to the light meter indications.
- Note that when the camera is used in manual mode, the light meter does not control the exposure, it simply indicates what to do.
METERING MODES –»
- Overview of all metering modes
- “Zone” / “Evaluative Metering”
- “Center Weighted Average Metering”
- “Spot Metering”
- “Partial Metering” (6.2% of the view finder)
WHITE BALANCE / COLOR –»
- What is white balance?
- Color Temperature
- Kelvin Scale
- Bracketing Color temperature
- Gray Cards/White Cards
- “Focal Length”
- “Zoom” vs. “Fixed” Focal Length (“Prime“) lenses
- Fish eye: 8-18mm (180º)
- Wide Angle: 21-25mm (63º)
- Normal: 50mm (43º)
- Medium long: 85-135mm (18º)
- Telephoto: 200-1000mm (21º/2º)
- Macro / Macro Photography
- Lens filters descriptions
- “UV” / “Clear” / “Haze”
- “Neutral Density”
- Special Effects Filters
- “Close-Up” / “Macro” Filter
- Gels / pantyhose / vaseline
Photography Fields: –»
- Reportage (Photojournalism or social reportage)
- Still life (product)
OTHER IMPORTANT KEYWORDS/CONCEPTS THAT WE WILL DISCUSS LATER THIS WEEK –»
- Angle (perception: 6 ft high / 50 ft away)
- Perspective / Lines / Depth
- “Center / Point of interest”
- Horizon line
- Decisive Moment
- Character study / Revealing Character